Jormungand and Hel: Loki’s Children in Norse Mythology

Jormungand and Hel

The intricate tapestry of Norse mythology spins tales of gods, mortals, and mythical creatures. Each character uniquely shapes the cosmology of the ancient Norsemen. Two such figures are Hel and Jörmungandr, the offspring of the infamous trickster god, Loki. This article offers an exploration into their stories, highlighting their profound roles and influences within the realm of Norse mythology.

Loki’s Progeny: Hel and Jörmungandr

Born from Loki and the giantess Angrboda, Hel and Jörmungandr are two of the most notorious figures in Norse mythology. Their birth and subsequent destinies are intertwined with major cosmic events, marked by their father’s notorious reputation and their own unique characteristics.

The Birth of Jörmungandr and Hel

Hel and Jörmungandr, along with their wolf-brother Fenrir, were born in the land of giants, Jotunheim. Their mother, Angrboda, a giantess, bore these three unique beings. The gods, fearing the prophecy that Loki’s offspring would bring about Ragnarok – the cataclysmic destruction of the cosmos – decided to intervene. They brought the trio to Asgard, the realm of gods, deciding their fate.

Jörmungandr: The Midgard Serpent

Jörmungandr, also known as the Midgard Serpent, was cast into the great ocean surrounding Midgard, the world of humanity. Here, the serpent grew so massive that he could encircle the entire world, biting his own tail. As the eternal enemy of Thor, the god of thunder, Jörmungandr’s destiny is to engage Thor in a deadly battle during Ragnarok. Their duel is prophesied to end in mutual destruction, further symbolizing the cyclical nature of Norse mythology – the end is, in essence, another beginning.

Hel: The Keeper of the Dead

Hel, the only daughter of Loki, was given authority over the realm of the dead, also named Hel. This realm was to accommodate those who died of old age or sickness – not in battle, for they were destined for Valhalla. Portrayed as half-living and half-dead, Hel embodies the stark contrast between life and death. In her cold, yet peaceful realm, she stands as the ultimate judge, welcoming the dead with an unprejudiced demeanor. Her reign over the realm of the dead places her among the most powerful beings in Norse mythology.

H2: Themes and Symbolism in the Stories of Hel and Jörmungandr

The stories of Hel and Jörmungandr, like much of Norse mythology, are steeped in symbolism and deeper themes. These range from concepts of balance and inevitability, to notions of chaos, constraint, and moral ambiguity.

Jörmungandr: The Ouroboros and Balance

Jörmungandr is often associated with the ancient symbol of Ouroboros – a serpent eating its own tail. This symbol, spanning various cultures, represents the cyclical nature of the universe: creation out of destruction, life out of death. By encircling the world, Jörmungandr maintains a delicate balance, embodying the Norse idea of the cosmos being held together by a complex array of balancing forces.

Hel: Between Life and Death

Hel, ruling over the realm named after her, stands at the boundary between life and death. She signifies the inescapable end that awaits all beings, not as a cruel fate, but as a natural part of existence. Hel embodies a kind of balance, as she oversees those who died of old age or illness, providing them with a realm of their own.

The Binding of Jörmungandr: Chaos and Constraint

Jörmungandr’s story is one of chaos and constraint. Thrown into the sea by the gods who feared his growth, Jörmungandr embodies the uncontrollable forces of chaos. However, his growth is limited to the confines of the sea encircling Midgard, reflecting the constraint placed upon him. This narrative underscores the Norse worldview of a cosmos wherein order and chaos are constantly in tension.

Hel’s Dual Nature: Reflections on Morality and Fate

Hel is depicted as half-living, half-dead, mirroring the duality of existence itself. This dual nature extends to a moral ambiguity – she is neither good nor evil, but simply a fact of existence. Her realm is not a place of punishment, but a necessary part of the cosmos for those not selected by Odin or Freyja in death. Thus, Hel challenges notions of fate, underscoring the idea that our final destination isn’t a result of our moral standing, but of circumstances beyond our control.


Hel and Jörmungandr in Modern Pop Culture

The figures of Hel and Jörmungandr, with their deep-seated symbolism and captivating stories, have crossed the boundaries of Norse sagas to find resonance in modern pop culture. They have become pivotal characters in comics, graphic novels, modern literature, and art, signifying different themes and ideas.

Hel and Jörmungandr in Comics and Graphic Novels

In the world of comics and graphic novels, Hel and Jörmungandr have been reimagined in numerous ways. For instance, in the Marvel Universe, Hela (based on Hel) is a formidable character, depicted as the Asgardian goddess of death. She is often portrayed with her power to manipulate life and death, echoing her mythological origins.

Jörmungandr has also appeared in various comics and graphic novels, usually maintaining his role as a massive, world-encircling serpent. His immense size and power often serve as major plot points, further emphasizing the significant threat he poses to the gods and the world.

Jörmungandr and Hel in Modern Literature and Art

Modern literature and art have also been influenced by the tales of Hel and Jörmungandr. In literature, they often appear in the retelling of Norse mythology. For instance, in Neil Gaiman’s “Norse Mythology,” both characters play integral roles, their stories reimagined with Gaiman’s characteristic wit and sense of wonder.

In the realm of art, Hel’s dual nature and Jörmungandr’s ouroboric form have inspired numerous works. These range from traditional paintings to modern digital art, often emphasizing the themes of duality, life and death, chaos, and balance that these characters symbolize. These depictions underscore the enduring relevance and fascination of these characters from ancient mythology to our contemporary world.

Jörmungandr and Hel in Video Games

Hel and Jörmungandr have found their way into the realm of video games as well, often featuring in games centered around mythological themes. Jörmungandr notably appears in the popular game “God of War” as an ally to Kratos and Atreus, his enormous size and serpentine form adding a sense of awe and danger to the game’s setting.

Hel, on the other hand, has been represented in various ways in games. She is a playable character in the game “SMITE,” where players can utilize her unique duality, switching between her light (life) and dark (death) stances. Games like “Hellblade: Senua’s Sacrifice” have also used the concept of Hel as a central plot point, adding depth and intrigue to the narrative.

Hel and Jörmungandr in Modern Cinema and Television

In the world of cinema and television, the characters of Hel and Jörmungandr have also made appearances. In the Marvel Cinematic Universe’s “Thor: Ragnarok,” Hela (inspired by Hel) is introduced as the primary antagonist, showcasing her formidable powers and echoing her mythological role.

Jörmungandr, though less commonly represented due to his immense size, has inspired the portrayal of serpentine or dragon-like creatures in many films and series. Their stories provide endless inspiration for narratives centered around cosmic battles, the tension between order and chaos, and the dual nature of existence.

Impact of Hel and Jörmungandr on Modern Philosophy and Psychology

The ancient characters of Hel and Jörmungandr have transcended their mythological origins to become subjects of interest in modern philosophy and psychology. Their stories and symbolism have influenced contemporary thinkers, offering profound insights into the human experience.

Jörmungandr and Nietzsche’s Concept of Eternal Recurrence

Jörmungandr’s representation as the Ouroboros, the serpent biting its own tail, resonates with Friedrich Nietzsche’s concept of eternal recurrence. Nietzsche proposed that life, like the Ouroboros, is an endless cycle, wherein everything that has happened will recur again in the same exact manner. The profound connection between Jörmungandr’s symbolism and Nietzsche’s philosophy invites contemplation on the eternal nature of existence and the meaning we ascribe to our lives.

Hel and the Jungian Shadow

Hel’s dual nature aligns with Carl Jung’s concept of the shadow in psychology. The shadow represents the hidden and often repressed aspects of the human psyche. Hel embodies the acceptance of death and the shadowy realms of the unconscious mind. Exploring Hel’s character through the lens of the Jungian shadow allows for a deeper understanding of the human psyche and the importance of integrating all aspects of ourselves for personal growth and individuation.

By examining these mythological figures through the lenses of modern philosophy and psychology, we gain new perspectives on the human condition, mortality, and the intricacies of the human psyche. Hel and Jörmungandr continue to inspire contemplation and contribute to the ongoing dialogue in these fields, challenging us to explore profound questions about existence, identity, and the interplay of light and darkness within ourselves.

Hel and Jörmungandr in the Context of Norse Cosmology

To fully comprehend the significance of Hel and Jörmungandr, it is essential to understand their roles within the larger framework of Norse cosmology. Within the Nine Worlds of Norse mythology, Helheim and Midgard hold distinct positions, shaping the interconnectedness of the cosmos.

Helheim: A World Apart

Helheim, the realm ruled by Hel, stands as a world apart from the realms of gods and humans. It serves as the final destination for those who did not die valiantly in battle, but rather succumbed to old age or illness. Helheim is often depicted as a cold and desolate realm, where souls find a somber yet peaceful existence, removed from the battles and festivities of the divine realms.

Delve into the unique characteristics of Helheim, exploring its geography, its inhabitants, and the role it plays in the grand tapestry of Norse cosmology. Discuss how Helheim provides an alternative understanding of the afterlife, highlighting the neutrality and impartiality of Hel as a ruler.

Jörmungandr and Midgard

Jörmungandr’s presence is deeply intertwined with Midgard, the realm of humans, as the serpent encircles the entire world, biting its own tail. This connection reflects the intricate relationship between humans and the natural forces that surround them.

Explore the implications of Jörmungandr’s presence on Midgard, considering both its destructive potential and its symbolic significance. Discuss how this massive serpent embodies the unpredictability and inherent dangers of nature, reminding humans of their vulnerability and their place within the vast cosmic order.

By examining Hel and Jörmungandr in the context of Norse cosmology, we gain a deeper understanding of their roles and significance within the intricate tapestry of the Nine Worlds. These realms offer insight into the interconnectedness of different realms, the cyclical nature of existence, and the ways in which divine and natural forces influence the lives of gods and humans alike.


Through a deep dive into the rich tapestry of Norse mythology, the significance of Hel and Jörmungandr, the children of Loki, becomes evident. From their origins to their symbolic roles, they offer a profound exploration of themes like chaos and order, life and death, and balance. Their influence is not confined to the ancient world, as they continue to inspire modern literature, art, cinema, and even video games. The tales of Jörmungandr and Hel remind us that these mythological narratives, despite their age, still have the power to captivate, inspire and resonate with us today.