Solar Symbolism in Viking Life: The Influence of Sol

Solar Symbolism in Viking Life: The Influence of Sol

The Vikings, seafaring warriors, and traders of the medieval North had a deep connection with the natural world, and their belief systems were often intertwined with celestial bodies. Among these celestial entities, the sun held a prominent place in Viking culture and mythology. Known as “Sol” in Old Norse, the sun was a source of warmth and light and carried significant symbolism and religious importance. In this article, we will explore the solar symbolism in Viking life and the profound influence of Sol on their beliefs, rituals, and daily existence.

Sol: The Radiant Goddess

In Norse mythology, the sun was personified as a radiant goddess named Sol. She was considered the sister of Mani, the moon, and together they were responsible for guiding the chariots that carried the sun and moon across the sky. Sol’s chariot, drawn by the horses Arvakr and Alsvidr, traversed the heavens, creating day and night as it moved.

Sol was not just a celestial body but also a powerful deity in her own right. Her radiance illuminated the world and was often associated with purity, light, and warmth. This symbolism of the sun’s radiant energy played a significant role in Viking life.

Sol in Viking Mythology: The Story of Chasing Wolves

In the rich tapestry of Norse mythology, Sol, the radiant goddess of the sun, played a pivotal role that extended beyond her mere presence in the sky. One of the most captivating myths surrounding Sol is the tale of her daily race against two relentless wolves, Skoll and Hati, a story that symbolized important aspects of Viking beliefs.

According to Norse mythology, Sol traversed the heavens in her chariot, drawn by the horses Arvakr and Alsvidr, which guided the sun’s path across the sky. However, this celestial journey was not without peril. Sol was relentlessly pursued by Skoll, a wolf who sought to devour her and plunge the world into darkness. Similarly, Hati, another wolf, sought to capture Sol’s brother, Mani, the moon.

This myth represented the eternal struggle between light and darkness, day and night, and life and death. Sol’s ability to outrun Skoll and keep him at bay during the day ensured the continuation of life and the triumph of light over darkness. Conversely, when Skoll briefly caught up to Sol during a solar eclipse, it signified a momentary victory of darkness, a phenomenon the Vikings believed would foreshadow Ragnarök, the end of the world.

The story of Sol’s race against the wolves also emphasized the cyclical nature of time in Viking cosmology. The sun’s journey across the sky, chased by Skoll, was symbolic of the perpetual cycle of day and night, and the sun’s reappearance each day was a testament to the resilience of life.

In essence, the myth of Sol and the wolves underscored the Vikings’ view of the natural world as a constant battle between opposing forces, where the sun, personified as Sol, played a crucial role in maintaining balance and ensuring the continuity of life. This captivating story added depth and meaning to the Vikings’ understanding of their place in the cosmos.

Sol as a Symbol of Fertility and Life

Beyond its role as a radiant source of light and warmth, the sun personified as Sol in Norse mythology held a profound significance as a symbol of fertility and the giver of life in Viking culture. The connection between the sun and fertility was deeply embedded in the Vikings’ agricultural practices and spiritual beliefs.

In the harsh, northern climate of Scandinavia, where long, dark winters could be unforgiving, the return of the sun’s warmth during springtime was a momentous event. It signaled the awakening of the earth from its wintry slumber and the promise of a bountiful growing season. Sol’s life-giving energy was believed to nourish the soil, causing crops to flourish and livestock to thrive. This connection between the sun’s revitalizing power and the abundance of food made Sol an essential deity in the agricultural cycle.

Viking farmers would eagerly watch the sun’s changing position in the sky, marking the passing of seasons and the optimal times for planting and harvesting. The sun’s rays were seen as a blessing from Sol herself, ensuring the prosperity and sustenance of the Viking communities.

Furthermore, the sun’s association with fertility also extended to human life. Sol’s warmth and light were believed to play a role in ensuring the health and well-being of newborns. It was customary for newborns to be exposed to the sun shortly after birth, a practice thought to imbue them with the sun’s vitality and protect them from illness.

In summary, Sol’s symbolism as a source of fertility and life was deeply intertwined with the practicalities of Viking agriculture and the spiritual aspects of their daily existence. The sun, as both a celestial body and a deity, held a central place in the Viking worldview, representing physical nourishment and the continuation of life itself in the rugged landscapes of the North.

Solar Symbolism in Viking Art and Ornamentation

The Vikings were skilled artisans, and their art and ornamentation were infused with solar symbolism. One of the most recognizable solar symbols in Viking art is the “solar cross,” also known as the “sun wheel” or “sun cross.” This symbol, consisting of a simple circle with rays extending outward, represented the sun’s life-giving energy and was often depicted on various artifacts, including jewelry, weaponry, and runestones.

Additionally, the Vikings used solar motifs in their intricate metalwork and woodcarvings. Horses and chariots, reminiscent of Sol’s celestial journey, were a common theme in their art. These representations celebrated the sun’s role in the natural world and invoked its protection and blessings in everyday life.

Sol as a Navigational Aid

The Vikings were renowned navigators who ventured far and wide across the seas in their longships. They relied heavily on their knowledge of the sun and stars for navigation. Sol, the most prominent celestial body during the day, was vital in guiding them on their journeys.

By observing the sun’s position in the sky, Viking sailors could determine the cardinal directions, ensuring they stayed on course and reached their intended destinations. Sol’s presence in the sky gave them a sense of direction and security, making it an indispensable element of their maritime culture.

Solar Festivals and Rituals

The sun’s movements across the sky also influenced Viking festivals and rituals. One of the most significant solar events for the Vikings was the winter solstice, known as “Yule.” Yule marked the longest night of the year and the return of the sun’s light, symbolizing the victory of light over darkness. The festival of Yule involved feasting, drinking, and the lighting of fires to honor the sun’s impending return.

Another important solar celebration was the summer solstice, known as “Midsummer” or “Litha.” This marked the longest day of the year when the sun reached its zenith. Vikings celebrated Midsummer with bonfires, music, and dancing, paying homage to the sun’s power at its peak.

Sol’s Role in Norse Cosmology

In Norse cosmology, the universe was divided into nine realms, with Midgard (the world of humans) at its center. The sun’s path across the sky connected these realms, making it a bridge between the mortal world and the divine. Sol’s journey symbolized the interplay between different realms and emphasized the interconnectedness of all existence.

Sol’s presence in the sky also directly influenced the Vikings’ concept of time. They divided the day into segments based on the sun’s position, and these divisions were integral to their daily routines and rituals.

Solar Sacrifices and Offerings

The Vikings occasionally made sacrifices and offerings to honor Sol and seek her favor. These offerings could include valuable objects, food, or even animal sacrifices. By giving these gifts to Sol, they hoped to ensure good weather, bountiful harvests, and safe voyages. Such rituals reinforced the idea that the sun was not just a celestial body but a deity with the power to affect their lives.

Sol and the Afterlife: Viking Funeral Rituals

In Viking culture, the sun personified as Sol held a significant place not only in the people’s daily lives but also in their beliefs about the afterlife. Viking funeral rituals were deeply influenced by their connection to the sun and their belief in the cyclical nature of existence.

When a Viking warrior or noble passed away, it was customary to send them off to the afterlife with elaborate funeral ceremonies. The deceased was typically placed in a boat with valuable possessions and offerings and set adrift on a body of water. This practice symbolized a journey to the next world, where the sun played a crucial role.

The sun, represented by Sol, was seen as a guiding force that could safely lead the departed to the realm of the dead. Vikings believed that the sun’s rays held the power to illuminate the path to the afterlife and ensure a smooth transition for the deceased. The setting sun, in particular, was associated with death and the departure of the soul.

Bonfires were often lit as part of these funeral rituals to honor the deceased and provide a beacon for the sun to follow. Vikings believed that the smoke from these fires would carry the soul of the departed to the heavens, where they could join their ancestors in the presence of the gods.

The sun’s symbolism in Viking funeral rituals extended to the idea of rebirth and renewal. Just as the sun rose each day, it was believed that the deceased would also experience a new beginning in the afterlife, surrounded by their forebears and the divine.

In summary, the sun, embodied by Sol, played a vital role in Viking funeral rituals. It was a symbol of guidance and illumination for the departed and represented the cyclical nature of life, death, and rebirth in Viking beliefs. These rituals reflected the deep spiritual connection that the Vikings had with the celestial bodies and the natural world around them.


The Vikings’ connection to the sun, personified as Sol in Norse mythology, was deeply ingrained in their culture and way of life. Sol’s radiant energy influenced their art, guided their navigation, and played a central role in their festivals and rituals. This solar symbolism was not only a means of understanding and interacting with the natural world but also a way of connecting with the divine realms in Norse cosmology.

The legacy of Sol’s influence on Viking life can still be seen in the archaeological remains, art, and literature of the Viking Age. It serves as a reminder of the profound impact celestial bodies can have on human culture and spirituality. The Vikings’ reverence for the sun, embodied in their goddess Sol, continues to shine brightly in the annals of history, casting its warm light on the enduring mysteries of their civilization.