Yggdrasil Squirrel: Nordic Mythology’s Hero


In the vast, captivating universe of Nordic mythology, each character has its unique place and purpose. Giants, gods, and creatures all participate in the grand cosmic drama, building a tapestry of tales that continue to enthral us today. Among them, the Yggdrasil squirrel, also known as Ratatoskr, holds a peculiar and fascinating role. Despite its small size, this mythological rodent has a task of considerable importance – it’s not just an inhabitant of the cosmic tree Yggdrasil, but a key player in the cosmic equilibrium. From being a messenger and gossip spreader to symbolizing deeper metaphysical concepts, Ratatoskr’s character is a perfect demonstration of how complex and nuanced Nordic mythology can be.

Unearthing the Myth of the Yggdrasil Squirrel

The Norse mythological universe, with its intricate connections and complex characters, presents a vivid picture of the ancient belief system of the Norse people. While many know about the gods like Odin, Thor, and Loki, the tale of Ratatoskr, the Yggdrasil squirrel, often flies under the radar. This is not for a lack of importance or relevance, but due to the subtlety and complexity of its role in the mythos.

Who is Ratatoskr?

Ratatoskr is an intriguing figure in Norse mythology. His name, roughly translating to “drill-tooth” or “bore-tooth,” hints at his industrious nature. As a squirrel, he isn’t an imposing or intimidating figure, but his agility, resourcefulness, and indefatigable spirit make him a character of great interest.

Ratatoskr lives in the world tree Yggdrasil, a cosmic ash tree that connects the nine realms of Norse cosmology. This small squirrel spends his time scampering up and down the tree, from its highest branches to its deepest roots, carrying messages between the eagle perched atop Yggdrasil and the wyrm (a type of dragon) named Nidhogg, who gnaws at its roots. These messages, typically in the form of taunts and insults, keep the two mighty creatures at odds with one another.

Role and Function in Norse Mythology

Ratatoskr’s primary role in the mythology is as a courier, transmitting messages and inciting conflict between the eagle and Nidhogg. His ceaseless running up and down Yggdrasil mirrors the constant flux and dynamic tension present in the universe. The insults and taunts he carries keep the eagle and the wyrm in a state of perpetual conflict, symbolizing the necessary balance between opposing forces in the universe. In this context, Ratatoskr embodies the concept of a provocateur, a force that drives the momentum of conflict and change.

Furthermore, Ratatoskr’s role can be seen as a reflection of the Norse understanding of communication and information. He spreads news, albeit twisted to his own amusement, displaying the potential power and danger of words. In this regard, he is not just a physical entity but a symbolic representation of the concept of speech and its potential consequences, displaying the significant impact words can have within a community or between two parties.

In the grand tapestry of Norse mythology, Ratatoskr, the Yggdrasil squirrel, plays a vital and dynamic role. His tale serves as a reminder of the underlying complexities and depths of these ancient stories, reaffirming the timeless allure of these mythological narratives.

The Yggdrasil Tree: The Cosmic Axis

In the lore of Nordic mythology, Yggdrasil is a central and pivotal element. This cosmic tree serves as the anchor for the entire Norse cosmology, symbolizing the interconnectedness of all life and realms. The tale of Yggdrasil and its inhabitants, including Ratatoskr, provides us with deep insights into the nature of the universe as perceived by the Norse people.

What is Yggdrasil?

Yggdrasil is an immense, holy ash tree that stands at the center of the Norse cosmos. With its branches reaching the heavens and its roots delving into the underworld, Yggdrasil connects the nine realms of Norse mythology. It is the axis around which the cosmic wheel turns, embodying the cycles of life, death, and rebirth.

The upper realm of Asgard, where the gods reside, Midgard, the realm of humans, and Hel, the realm of the dead, are among the nine realms connected by Yggdrasil. This cosmic tree is not merely a geographical marker, but a symbol of cosmic order, life, growth, and interconnectedness.

The wellbeing of Yggdrasil is closely linked to the health of the cosmos itself. It is tended to by the Norns, three divine beings who control the destiny of all beings. They water Yggdrasil with the water from the Well of Urd to keep it healthy and verdant.

The Creatures of Yggdrasil

Yggdrasil is more than a silent observer in the cosmos. It is a vibrant ecosystem teeming with various creatures, each playing a significant role in Norse mythology.

Ratatoskr, the squirrel, is perhaps the most active among them, carrying messages from the eagle at the top to Nidhogg, the wyrm at the tree’s root.

At the top of Yggdrasil, an unnamed eagle resides, with a hawk named Vedrfolnir perched between its eyes. The eagle is thought to represent the sky, high spiritual aspirations, and lofty ideals.

The wyrm Nidhogg, gnawing at the roots, symbolizes destructive forces and entropy. Despite his destructive role, Nidhogg also plays a crucial role in the regeneration process. He is a representation of the cyclic nature of destruction and creation.

There are also four stags – Dáinn, Dvalinn, Duneyrr, and Duraþrór – who graze on the leaves of Yggdrasil, representing the four winds.

Each creature is a symbol, and their interactions depict the dynamic balance of life, highlighting the philosophical depth and intricate symbolism of Norse mythology.

Ratatoskr’s Role in the Cosmic Balance

Every character in Norse mythology plays a part in maintaining cosmic balance, with Ratatoskr, the Yggdrasil squirrel, being no exception. Ratatoskr’s role as a message runner is instrumental in perpetuating the ongoing conflict between the eagle and Nidhogg, two mighty creatures symbolizing opposing forces in the cosmos. Beyond that, the symbolism of Ratatoskr offers deeper insight into its significance in Norse mythology.

The Message Runner

Ratatoskr, as a message runner, has a seemingly endless task – the squirrel continually scurries up and down Yggdrasil, carrying messages between the eagle at the tree’s crown and Nidhogg at its roots. However, these messages aren’t cordial communications but taunts and insults, aiming to stoke the enmity between these two powerful beings.

This animosity is a reflection of the fundamental opposition and tension that Norse mythology attributes to the universe. The eagle, associated with the celestial, and Nidhogg, associated with the underworld, represent the constant struggle between creation and destruction, high and low, light and dark. By carrying the messages, Ratatoskr keeps this cosmic tension alive, thus ensuring the ongoing cycle of the cosmos.

The Symbolism of Ratatoskr

The character of Ratatoskr is filled with symbolism and hidden meanings, as is the case with many elements of Norse mythology. On one level, Ratatoskr symbolizes the power of communication. Despite being a small squirrel, he has a significant impact on the cosmos, showing how words can influence situations and relationships.

In another light, Ratatoskr could be seen as a symbol of perpetual movement and tireless energy. His never-ending journey between the top and bottom of Yggdrasil might symbolize the endless cycle of life and death, and the constant state of flux within the cosmos.

Ratatoskr’s role as a provocateur might be interpreted as a commentary on the role of conflict in the universe. Conflict, in many philosophical traditions, is not necessarily seen as a negative aspect, but rather a driving force behind change and transformation. Ratatoskr, by instigating the tension between the eagle and Nidhogg, can be seen as a catalyst for cosmic evolution.

Finally, Ratatoskr could also embody the concept of balance. In Norse cosmology, harmony is not about absolute peace but rather about the balance of opposing forces. As a messenger, Ratatoskr maintains the equilibrium between the eagle and Nidhogg, demonstrating the Norse understanding of cosmic balance.

Thus, while Ratatoskr may be small in size, his symbolic representation and impact within the cosmic balance of Norse mythology is undeniably significant.

Ratatoskr in Modern Culture

Even though Ratatoskr’s tale originates from ancient times, his character has found resonance in modern culture. The small but mighty Yggdrasil squirrel has found his way into various forms of contemporary art and literature, signifying the enduring influence and fascination with Norse mythology.

References in Literature and Art

Ratatoskr, with its unique character and symbolic depth, has been featured in numerous modern literary and artistic works. In literature, Ratatoskr appears in various fantasy novels, including the works of Neil Gaiman, such as “Norse Mythology”, where he is described in all his mischievous glory.

Ratatoskr also features prominently in graphic novels and comics. For example, Marvel’s depiction of Ratatoskr in the “Thor” series gives a nod to the original myth while adding a contemporary twist to the character.

In visual art, Ratatoskr often appears in works inspired by Norse mythology, whether in detailed paintings or minimalist illustrations. The squirrel of Yggdrasil has even made its way into the world of tattoo art, often representing qualities like agility, communication, and balance.

The Legacy of Ratatoskr

The legacy of Ratatoskr extends beyond literature and art. In the digital age, Ratatoskr’s character has been adapted into various video games, most notably the popular game “SMITE”, where he is portrayed as a playable deity, showcasing his iconic speed and agility.

The influence of Ratatoskr also manifests in educational and cultural contexts. Ratatoskr serves as an engaging way to introduce and educate younger generations about Norse mythology. Meanwhile, Ratatoskr continues to be a symbol in Nordic cultures, representing various elements depending on the context, from communication and information to balance and conflict.

Ratatoskr: A Gateway to Understanding Norse Cosmology

The character of Ratatoskr offers a unique lens through which we can explore and understand Norse cosmology. The squirrel’s ceaseless activity up and down Yggdrasil, and its interaction with various other creatures, provides us with a practical narrative to comprehend the otherwise abstract concepts of Norse cosmology. From the structure of the nine realms to the philosophical notions that underlie the mythology, Ratatoskr serves as a perfect guide into the deep universe of Norse myths.

Ratatoskr’s Unique Position in the Nine Realms

Ratatoskr’s role as the messenger between the eagle at Yggdrasil’s peak and Nidhogg at its roots situates him in a unique position within Norse cosmology. He is neither confined to a single realm nor a static character. Instead, Ratatoskr traverses the entire height of Yggdrasil, thus interacting with all the realms that the cosmic tree connects.

This incessant movement between the realms offers Ratatoskr a comprehensive perspective of the cosmos, a trait few other characters in Norse mythology possess. His role allows him to engage with the celestial, terrestrial, and underworld realms, indicating the profound interconnectedness of these different domains.

The narrative of Ratatoskr is, in this sense, a reflection of the structural unity of the nine realms. By following Ratatoskr’s journey, we can gain a sense of the underlying coherence and connectivity of the Norse cosmos.

Ratatoskr and the Philosophical Underpinnings of Norse Mythology

Ratatoskr’s story goes beyond the physical representation of the Norse cosmos and delves into its philosophical underpinnings. The squirrel is more than just a courier between the eagle and Nidhogg; it’s a manifestation of several key philosophical notions inherent in Norse mythology.

Through Ratatoskr’s tale, we encounter the Norse understanding of balance, evident in the squirrel’s role in maintaining the ongoing tension between the eagle and Nidhogg. This balance isn’t about harmonious stasis, but a dynamic equilibrium of opposing forces, embodying the Norse belief in the necessity of conflict and tension in maintaining cosmic order.

Ratatoskr also symbolizes the concept of perpetual movement and change. His ceaseless running up and down Yggdrasil mirrors the constant flux and transformation within the universe, encapsulating the Norse view of an ever-changing cosmos.

Lastly, Ratatoskr embodies the power of communication and information, highlighting the Norse appreciation of speech and wisdom. The squirrel shows that words, whether they are shared knowledge or inciting taunts, have the power to influence situations, underscoring the importance of dialogue and information exchange in Norse society.

Therefore, through the story of Ratatoskr, we get a glimpse of not just the cosmological structure but also the philosophical essence of Norse mythology.


Ratatoskr, the Yggdrasil squirrel, may seem like a minor character in the grand narrative of Norse mythology. Yet, his role is vital in maintaining the delicate balance of the cosmos, highlighting the depth and complexity of these ancient tales. Ratatoskr embodies concepts like communication, perpetual movement, and balance, making him a character rich in symbolism.

The continued presence of Ratatoskr in modern culture, from literature and art to video games and educational materials, testifies to the lasting allure and relevance of Norse mythology. The legacy of Ratatoskr reminds us that no matter how small, every character in a myth or a story has the potential to carry profound meaning and make significant contributions to the larger narrative. It’s the little squirrel running up and down Yggdrasil that keeps the cosmic wheel turning, underlining the Norse belief in the interconnectedness of all life and realms.