What Are The Viking Trade Routes Of The Middle Ages?

Viking Trade Routes

Viking trade routes of the Middle Ages paint a vivid picture of the expansive and intricate network of connections, influences, and commodities that fueled the European economy. As seafaring warriors and traders from Scandinavian regions, the Vikings played a significant role in the international commerce of the time. Despite the commonly depicted image of ruthless invaders, their legacy includes much more than merely pillage and conquest; it was significantly shaped by commerce and intercultural exchange.

What Were the Major Trade Routes of the Middle Ages?

The Middle Ages, also known as the medieval period, was marked by remarkable growth in trade and economic activity, fostering a higher degree of interconnectivity among various regions of the world. Several significant trade routes emerged during this period, facilitating the exchange of goods, ideas, and cultures.

  • The Silk Road: Perhaps the most famous was the Silk Road, an intricate network of overland routes stretching from China to the Mediterranean Sea. The Silk Road was not a single path but a web of routes that facilitated the flow of goods such as silk, spices, precious metals, and stones from the East to the West and commodities like gold, silver, and wool from the West to the East.
  • The Trans-Saharan Trade Routes: Another significant trade route was the Trans-Saharan route that connected the kingdoms of North Africa with sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the hostile conditions of the Sahara, camel caravans navigated these arduous paths, transporting gold, salt, ivory, and slaves. This trade significantly contributed to the prosperity of West African empires like Ghana, Mali, and Songhai.
  • The Viking Trade Routes: The Vikings, renowned seafarers of the Middle Ages, developed extensive trade routes spanning from their homelands in Scandinavia to destinations as far as North America in the West and the Byzantine Empire in the East. They traded in a variety of goods, including furs, amber, slaves, and even walrus ivory.
  • The Indian Ocean Trade Routes: The medieval period also saw the flourishing of maritime trade routes in the Indian Ocean. These routes connected East Africa, Arabia, India, Southeast Asia, and China ports. Commodities like spices, textiles, and precious stones were transported, fostering the prosperity of coastal trading states.

These major trade routes of the Middle Ages formed the backbone of medieval global trade, bridging various cultures, stimulating economic growth, and laying the groundwork for the modern interconnected world.

The Birth of Viking Trade and Commerce

To understand the Viking trade, we need to revisit the origins of the Vikings, seafaring people from the late eighth to the early 11th century. Their journey from isolated northern regions of Europe to becoming key players in international trade can be described as an adventurous saga of exploration, conquest, and trade.

The Vikings started as local traders and raiders but soon discovered their maritime skills could be used for more long-distance ventures. Fueled by a combination of overpopulation at home and the lure of wealth elsewhere, they set out in their longships, armed with not only weapons of war but also merchandise for trade.

Understanding Viking Trade Routes of the Middle Ages 

The Baltic Sea Route

The Viking conquest trade route initially developed in the Baltic Sea. It was a significant waterway for the Vikings’ eastward expansion into modern Russia and Ukraine territories. Here, the Vikings established trade links with the Slavic and Finno-Ugric tribes, exchanging goods like honey, furs, wax, and slaves for Arabic silver, spices, silk, and other luxury items from the East.

The North Sea Route

The North Sea route was another crucial pathway for the Vikings. It facilitated their activities in the British Isles and connected them with the Frankish Empire in mainland Europe. The Vikings not only raided and conquered but also established trading towns such as Dublin in Ireland, which became a bustling hub of the slave trade.

The Atlantic Sea Route

The Atlantic Sea route was a path for their journeys to the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Greenland, and even North America. The Vikings transported goods from these distant lands, like walrus ivory, polar bear furs, falcons from Greenland, and even Native American artifacts from Vinland, their name for North America.

The Varangian Route

The Varangian route was an essential route that ran from the Scandinavian homelands down the major rivers of Eastern Europe to the Byzantine Empire and the Caliphates of the Middle East. The Vikings, known as Varangians in Eastern Europe, became significant intermediaries in the trade between the Christian and Islamic worlds.

Did the Vikings Trade on the Silk Road?

The Silk Road, an extensive network of trade routes connecting China with Central Asia and the Mediterranean, served as the major conduit for the exchange of goods, culture, and ideas among various civilizations. But did the Vikings, the seafaring warriors and traders from the Scandinavian region, directly participate in this illustrious trade network?

The answer is somewhat complex. The Vikings did not directly trade along the Silk Road as they did not establish direct connections with China or Central Asia. The Silk Road was primarily a terrestrial network of routes, and the Vikings were mainly seafarers. Yet, they indirectly benefited from the Silk Road trade through their contacts with societies that were part of this network.

The most prominent example is the trade between the Vikings, known as Varangians in Eastern Europe, and the Byzantine Empire and the Abbasid Caliphate in the Middle East. Through these interactions, the Vikings obtained goods like silk, spices, and precious stones that were brought from China and Central Asia along the Silk Road.

Moreover, archaeological discoveries, such as the silk fabrics found in Viking graves and the Buddha statue found in Sweden, are a testament to the indirect Viking contact with the Silk Road. These artifacts demonstrate that while the Vikings might not have traveled the Silk Road themselves, the goods and influences from the East reached the Viking world, marking their participation in the wider Eurasian trade network.

In the end, the Vikings were part of a broad international trade network, indirectly linked to the Silk Road through various intermediaries. They were receivers and distributors of Eastern goods, signifying their engagement with the broader medieval global economy.

The Nature of Goods in Viking Trade

The question arises: what goods did Vikings trade? The answer presents a diverse array of commodities that were moved along these trade routes. They dealt with everyday items such as grain, fish, honey, wool, timber, iron, and luxury items like silk, wine, spices, jewelry, and silver.

Viking craftsmen created sought-after goods such as combs made of antlers, jewelry, and tools. There was also a darker side to their trade, including slaves. Slavery was a key part of the Viking economy, and raids were often carried out to capture slaves for trade.

What Items Did the Vikings Import and Export?

The Norsemen were prolific traders, and their goods were as diverse as the many regions they reached. The items they imported and exported varied based on the specific region and its natural resources, as well as the demands of the Viking home markets.

Exports: From their homelands in Scandinavia, the Vikings exported a variety of products. Timber, especially pine and oak, was abundant in their territories and highly sought after for building houses, ships, and tools. They also exported iron, which was mined in regions such as central Sweden. This iron was used to produce weapons and tools traded across Europe.

In addition to natural resources, the Vikings exported crafted goods. Combs made from deer antlers, jewelry, weapons, and pottery were popular Viking exports. Wool was another significant export; the Vikings raised sheep, and their wool was considered high-quality.

Perhaps the most sinister of the Viking exports were slaves captured during their many raids. They were mainly sold in markets in Ireland, the British Isles, and the Middle East.

Imports: On the import side, the Vikings’ purchases reveal their connections with far-flung lands. They imported luxury items like silk from Byzantium and spices from the Middle East. They imported goods such as wine, silver, ceramics, and glassware from the European mainland.

Grain was another significant import, especially for those Viking territories with less fertile land. The trade of Arabic silver coins from the Middle East into Scandinavia demonstrates their extensive trade links and suggests that many of these imports were paid for with silver.

In the end, the Viking trade was a dynamic part of the medieval economy, linking regions from the Middle East to North America with a network of goods and commodities.

Famous Viking Traders

The Vikings are typically depicted as fearsome raiders. Still, they were also skilled traders responsible for establishing extensive trade networks that played a significant role in the Middle Ages economy. Some Vikings achieved remarkable prominence as traders, leaving an indelible mark on history.

1. Ottar (Ohthere): Ottar, an adventurous sea captain from Norway, is perhaps the most famous Viking trader. His voyages took him to places as far-flung as the White Sea in northeastern Europe, where he traded with the Sami people for valuable goods like furs, walrus ivory, and whalebone. Ottar documented his travels, and his descriptions provide one of the earliest and most detailed accounts of the Viking world. His reports were later included in the Old English manuscript called the “Voyage of Ohthere and Wulfstan,” now held in the British Library.

2. Rurik: Rurik was a legendary Viking trader who is considered the founder of the Rurik Dynasty, which ruled over Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus for several centuries. Originally a Varangian, a Viking who traded along the rivers of Eastern Europe, Rurik was invited by the local Slavic and Finnic tribes to rule over them, thus establishing his dynasty and the state now known as Russia.

3. Thorgest (Thorgils): Thorgest, also known as Thorgils, was a prominent Viking trader and chieftain in Ireland. His trading expeditions took him to areas around the British Isles and Iceland, where he collected goods like wool, hides, and timber. Thorgest was also a skilled warrior, and his combined prowess in warfare and trade contributed significantly to the Vikings’ impact on the British Isles.

4. The Brothers Freydis and Leif Erikson: While not exclusively traders, Leif Erikson and his sister Freydis are notable for their explorations to Vinland (likely modern Newfoundland), where they established a short-lived Viking settlement. They traded with the indigenous peoples, exchanging metal tools and weapons for valuable furs and other goods.

These famous Viking traders underline trade’s crucial role in the Viking Age, reflecting a nuanced picture of Viking society that goes beyond the common image of ruthless raiders.

Viking Trade Rumors and Their Impact

The term Viking trade rumors is generally used to refer to the legends and stories that often surrounded Viking trading activities. These rumors created an aura of mystery and intrigue around Viking traders, but they also significantly impacted the patterns of trade.

For example, rumors of the wealth of Constantinople and the Eastern Roman Empire and the promise of trade with the Middle East via Eastern Europe encouraged the Vikings to establish the Varangian route. Similarly, rumors of the vast riches in the British Isles and France led to establishment of the North Sea route.

Vikings and International Trade

In the broader scope of history, Viking international trade was a crucial element in the economic development of Europe. It facilitated the exchange of goods, ideas, and cultures between previously isolated regions, leading to increased interdependence and complexity in economic and political relations.

Viking trading towns grew into major cities such as Dublin, York, and Novgorod, and these hubs of commerce played a significant role in the beginnings of urbanization in Northern Europe. Furthermore, the creation of the Varangian route played an important part in the emergence of Russia as a state.

The Impact of Viking Trade on the Medieval World

The Viking trade routes of the Middle Ages played a pivotal role in shaping the socio-economic landscape of the medieval world. Their influence was transformative and far-reaching, integrating distant and diverse regions into a broader trading network and setting the stage for the increasing globalization of later centuries.

One of the most significant impacts of the Viking trade was the acceleration of urban development in Northern Europe. Trading hubs such as Dublin, York, Novgorod, and Hedeby, initially founded or expanded by Vikings, became bustling centers of commerce. The wealth amassed from trading activities led to growth and prosperity in these areas, initiating processes of urbanization that would define the landscape of Europe.

Viking trade also fostered cultural exchange and interaction. As they journeyed from their Nordic homes to the corners of the known world, Vikings brought their language, traditions, and craftsmanship, leaving an indelible mark on the cultures they interacted with. Conversely, they absorbed influences from these diverse cultures, integrating new ideas and technologies into their societies.

Moreover, the Viking trade influenced political landscapes. The wealth generated through trade often translated into political power. It strengthened Viking chieftains domestically and funded overseas expeditions, enabling them to establish colonies and kingdoms, like the Duchy of Normandy and the Kingdom of Dublin.

Finally, the Viking trade played a crucial role in the transmission of knowledge. Viking merchants acted as conduits for ideas, technologies, and narratives, spreading them along their extensive trade networks. This cross-cultural exchange was instrumental in the dissemination of technological advancements, literary narratives, and artistic styles, further contributing to the richness of the medieval world.

Ultimately, the impact of the Viking trade on the medieval world was multifaceted and profound. Through their extensive trade networks, the Vikings left a lasting legacy, shaping the medieval world’s economic, political, and cultural contours.


The Viking trade routes of the Middle Ages were more than just paths for the movement of goods; they were corridors of cultural exchange and progression. They fostered the growth of towns, led to increased complexity in social and economic structures, and played a key role in shaping the world as we know it. It is a testament to the impact of these seafaring traders that the echoes of their activity can still be seen today in the economic and cultural landscapes of Europe and beyond.