What Meat Did Vikings Eat?

meat Vikings ate

If you’ve ever wondered about the dining preferences of the seafaring Scandinavian warriors known as Vikings, then you’re in the right place. The answer is more complex than it might seem, however. These fierce Nordic explorers weren’t just hunters but farmers and fishermen, and their diet often included a mix of meat, fish, dairy, grains, vegetables, and fruits. However, in this article, we’ll specifically dive into the meat Vikings ate and how they processed it, including some Viking meat recipes that have survived the test of time.

What Was a Typical Viking Diet?

A typical Viking diet was balanced, robust, and often depended on location and the season. It was largely agricultural, supplemented by hunting, fishing, and foraging. Here’s a snapshot of what constituted a typical Viking meal.

Meat: Meat was an integral part of a Viking’s diet. They consumed a variety of domesticated animals, such as cattle, pigs, and sheep, along with wild game, including deer and boar. These were often smoked, dried, or salted for preservation.

Fish and Seafood: Given their maritime culture, fish were a staple in the Viking diet, especially in coastal areas. They consumed a wide array of fish, such as herring, salmon, and cod, often dried or smoked for preservation. Other seafood like seals, whales, and shellfish were also part of their diet.

Dairy: Vikings also raised animals for milk, from which they made a variety of dairy products such as cheese, butter, and skyr (a type of yogurt still popular in Iceland today).

Grains: Grains such as barley, rye, and oats were widely cultivated and used to make bread, porridge, and even beer.

Fruits, Vegetables, and Legumes: They grew and foraged vegetables like cabbages, onions, peas, beans, and turnips. They also enjoyed fruits like apples, berries, and plums, both fresh and dried.

Herbs and Spices: Although not as varied as we have today, Vikings used herbs and spices like mustard seeds, cumin, and wild garlic to flavor their food.

Drink: Mead, beer, and ale were common alcoholic beverages for the Vikings. For non-alcoholic options, they consumed milk and water.

As you can see, the Viking diet was quite diverse and balanced, providing them with the necessary energy and nutrition to support their active lifestyle and harsh climate.

What Did Vikings Eat for Protein?

Protein was a crucial part of the Viking diet, necessary for their physically demanding lifestyle. Vikings acquired protein from a variety of sources, including meat, dairy products, fish, and legumes.

Meat: As we’ve already noted, meat was a key source of protein for the Vikings. Domesticated animals like cattle, sheep, and pigs provided them with beef, mutton, and pork, respectively. They also hunted wild game such as deer, elk, and boar.

Fish and Seafood: Being skilled seafarers, Vikings had an abundant supply of fish and other seafood. Fish like herring, cod, and salmon were often caught and consumed fresh, smoked, or dried. Sea mammals, like seals and whales, and shellfish, like mussels and oysters, also contributed to their protein intake.

Dairy Products: The Vikings also kept animals for their milk. Cows, goats, and sheep provided milk, consumed fresh or used to make various dairy products. The cheese was a significant source of protein. Skyr, a cultured dairy product similar to yogurt, was also a common protein-rich food.

Legumes: Although meat and fish were the primary protein sources, Vikings consumed legumes like peas and beans. These were often cooked in stews, along with meat and vegetables.

Eggs: Chickens, ducks, and geese were kept not only for their meat but also for their eggs. Eggs were a valuable source of protein, especially in the spring when they were most plentiful.

Nuts and Seeds: Wild nuts and seeds were also gathered and consumed for their protein content. Hazelnuts were a favorite and were often ground into a meal and used in cooking.

Thus, the Vikings had a multifaceted approach to their protein intake, sourcing it from a broad range of foods. Their diet was not only rich in protein but also balanced, which helped them maintain their strength and vitality in their harsh and challenging environment.

The Meat that Viking Eat

The Vikings were not a people limited to a single source of meat. They had a variety of meat in their diet, which included beef, pork, poultry, mutton, and game.

  1. Beef: Cattle were highly valued by the Vikings for their milk and meat. Beef was an important part of their diet, especially during feasts.
  2. Pork: Pigs were common in Viking farms, and pork was popular. It could be consumed fresh or preserved for later use.
  3. Poultry: Chickens, geese, and ducks were often kept for their eggs, but they were also a source of meat. Yet, they were less common than beef or pork.
  4. Mutton: Sheep were particularly important in the Viking age. They provided wool, milk, and meat. Mutton, or sheep’s meat, was a staple in their diet.
  5. Game: The Vikings also hunted wild animals for meat. Deer, elk, hare, and boar were some game animals the Vikings consumed.

Feasting Customs: Viking Meat Dishes During Celebrations

Feasts were an integral part of Viking society, serving as communal gatherings to celebrate victories, religious rituals, weddings, and seasonal events. These celebrations often featured abundant and diverse meat dishes, reflecting the community’s prosperity and the host’s hospitality.

The centerpiece of a Viking feast was typically a large roast. This could be a whole pig, a side of beef, or a whole sheep, simmered over an open fire or in a large pit. These roasts often accompanied smaller meat dishes such as smoked fish, poultry, and game. In some instances, exotic or rare meats like bears or reindeer might be served to demonstrate the host’s wealth and status.

In addition to the meats, feasts would include various accompaniments. There would be bread, cheeses, and different locally sourced vegetables and fruits. Mead, beer, and wine flowed freely, adding to the festive atmosphere.

These feasts were not just about sustenance but social and cultural expression. The sharing of meat dishes signified unity and camaraderie among the participants, reinforcing social bonds and communal identity. They remain a testament to the Vikings’ appreciation for meat as a dietary staple and a symbol of celebration and communal spirit.

Viking Hunting Practices: From Game to Table

Hunting was an integral part of Viking life, serving practical and symbolic purposes. It provided meat for sustenance and fur for clothing while also acting as a proving ground for young men to demonstrate their courage and skill.

Vikings hunted a variety of animals, from small game-like hares and birds to larger animals such as deer, elk, and boar. They used various hunting tools, including bows, arrows, spears, and traps. The method chosen often depended on the size and nature of the prey. For example, large animals like elk might be hunted using spears or bows, while the smaller game could be caught using snares or traps.

The pursuit of wild game was often a communal event involving a group of hunters working together. Larger game like elk or boar required careful planning and coordination, with the meat distributed among the participants after a successful hunt.

The meat from hunting supplemented the Vikings’ diet, diversifying their protein sources and providing essential nutrients. Moreover, it had a significant role in Viking culture, seen in various saga tales that glorified successful hunts and the bravery of the hunters. Hunting was more than a means of obtaining food; it was a culturally significant activity that showcased skill, courage, and cooperation.

Viking Meat Preservation Techniques

Before refrigeration, people had to develop methods to preserve meat to ensure they could eat it throughout the year. The Vikings were adept at preserving their meat, employing various techniques such as drying, smoking, and salting.

How Did Vikings Dry Their Meat?

Drying was one of the most common methods of meat preservation used by the Vikings. This process involved hanging the meat in the open air, often in the wind or sun, until dehydrated. It was important to slice the meat into thin strips before drying, as this would speed up the process and ensure the meat dried evenly. Once dried, the meat could be stored for a long time and rehydrated and cooked when needed.

The Art of Smoking

The Vikings also used smoking as a preservation method. This involved hanging the meat above a fire and letting the smoke slowly cook and preserve it. The process could take several days, but the result was a flavorful, well-preserved meat that could be stored and eaten later.

Viking Salt Meat

Salt was another valuable resource for the Vikings in their meat preservation techniques. By rubbing salt into the meat, they could draw out the moisture and create an unfavorable environment for bacterial growth. This process, known as salting or curing, made the meat safe to store for a long time.

Often, the Vikings would combine these methods. They might, for instance, salt the meat first to draw out the moisture and then dry or smoke it to preserve it further.

Did Vikings Eat Raw Meat?

The question of whether Vikings ate raw meat has been the subject of much speculation and debate among historians. While it’s hard to definitively answer this question due to the scarcity of historical records from the Viking Age, it’s likely that Vikings, similar to other societies in the same era, would have primarily consumed their meat cooked, given the health risks associated with eating raw meat.

Cooking meat not only makes it easier to chew and digest, but it also kills bacteria and parasites that can cause diseases. Since the Vikings were known for their seafaring skills, trading, and raiding, they would have been aware of different cooking methods used by the societies they came into contact with.

Their most common methods of preparing meat include boiling, roasting, and grilling. They also had sophisticated techniques for preserving meat, such as smoking, drying, and salting, which would have allowed them to store meat safely for consumption over a long period. This further suggests that they would likely have cooked their meat rather than eat it raw.

On the other hand, the consumption of raw fish, especially in the form of fermented fish, was quite common. One of the most well-known examples is the traditional Icelandic dish, hákarl, made from the fermented shark. This dish, however, is more of an exception than a rule and is likely to have been eaten out of necessity in the harshest winter months when fresh food was scarce.

So, even though it’s plausible that Vikings may have consumed some forms of raw meat or fish, most of their meat consumption likely involved some form of cooking or preservation to ensure its safety and enhance its taste. Their culinary traditions passed down through generations, indicating a culture that valued not just the quantity but also the quality and safety of their food. 

Viking Meat Recipes

The Vikings did not just consume meat as-is; they had a variety of ways to prepare and cook their meat. Here are a few Viking meat recipes that have been passed down over the centuries:

  1. Grilled Meat: This is perhaps the simplest and most common method of cooking meat among the Vikings and most cultures. Vikings would grill their meat over an open flame, often on a spit. They could add flavor by using various herbs and spices available to them, such as garlic, onion, and mustard seeds.
  2. Boiled Meat: Vikings would also boil their meat, often with vegetables such as turnips or cabbage. This was a practical way of cooking, allowing them to use less fuel and create a more filling meal.
  3. Stews and Soups: Vikings were known for their hearty stews and soups, often made with meat, vegetables, and grains. These dishes were prevalent in the colder months, providing much-needed warmth and nutrition.
  4. Smoked or Dried Meat: As we’ve already discussed, the Vikings would often smoke or dry their meat as a means of preservation. However, this also created a unique flavor they would enjoy in various dishes.


Understanding the diet of the Vikings provides fascinating insights into their lifestyle and culture. Their use of various types of meat and sophisticated preservation techniques allowed them to adapt to their harsh environment and thrive as explorers, traders, and warriors. So, the next time you enjoy a piece of dried or smoked meat, remember that you’re partaking in a culinary tradition that dates back to the Viking Age.