Viking Food Facts

Viking Food Facts

The Vikings, seafaring people from the late eighth to early 11th century, have been historically portrayed as somewhat barbaric, but their culture was remarkably sophisticated. This sophistication extended to their food and eating habits. The ancient Vikings food was more than just a means of survival. It represented their agricultural prowess, trade networks, and cultural traditions. Here’s an in-depth look at what comprised the traditional Viking food and how their eating habits mirrored their society.

Interesting Facts About Viking Food You Didn’t Know Before

Did you know that the Vikings’ food habits were shaped by their environment and changing seasons? They ate fresh produce like fruits, vegetables, and herbs in the summer and relied on preserved food during the harsh winters. Contrary to popular belief, Vikings did not feast on meat every day. The meat was often reserved for special occasions, with a daily diet primarily consisting of grain-based foods like bread and porridge. Interestingly, spices were a luxury item in the Viking age. Traded from far-off lands, they were treasured and used sparingly to flavor dishes.

Also, the Vikings were quite health-conscious. They understood the value of fermentation for both preservation and gut health. They made fermented milk products like skyr (a type of yogurt), cheese, and even a fermented fish dish called surströmming, which is still a traditional food in Sweden today. Vikings were truly ahead of their time when it came to making the most of what they had and creating a diverse and nutritious diet.

Farming and Livestock: The Basis of Viking Food

The harsh climate of the Vikings’ homeland, Scandinavia, necessitated hearty eating. Rugged landscapes and a cold environment meant that grains like barley, rye, and oats were staple crops. These were often ground into flour to make bread or porridge, staple dishes in ancient Viking meals.

Vikings were primarily farmers, and they raised a variety of livestock, including cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, poultry, and horses. Cattle were precious, providing milk that could be turned into butter, cheese, and skyr – a type of thick yogurt still popular in Iceland today. The meat was also essential in the Viking diet, usually boiled to make stews but occasionally roasted. It was often salted or smoked for preservation during the long winters.

Seafood: A Viking Delicacy

Given their seafaring culture, it’s no surprise that seafood was a significant part of the Viking diet. Fish were caught in rivers, lakes, and the sea. Cod, herring, salmon, eel, and other types of fish were staples of the Viking eating experience. These fish were often dried, salted, or smoked for preservation and to serve as a protein source during the long, harsh winters.

Vikings also harvested shellfish, and those living near the coast hunted seals and whales – a tradition that continues to this day in some Scandinavian communities.

Fruits, Vegetables, and Nuts: The Unsung Heroes

While often overlooked, fruits, vegetables, and nuts formed a significant part of the traditional Viking food. Vikings grew crops like cabbages, onions, beans, peas, and turnips. Apples and various berries were among the fruits that could withstand the Scandinavian climate. Wild nuts and seeds were also a part of the Viking diet.

Preservation methods for these items were less sophisticated than those for meat or fish. They were generally consumed fresh during the season. However, they were also dried, fermented, or preserved in honey for consumption during winter months.

Did Vikings Eat Potatoes? 

The question of whether Vikings ate potatoes is interesting because it touches on the larger history of this ubiquitous food item. Potatoes were not part of the Viking diet, not because they wouldn’t have enjoyed them, but because potatoes had not yet arrived in Europe during the Viking Age.

Potatoes are native to South America and were only brought to Europe after the Columbian Exchange, which started in 1492 with Christopher Columbus’s voyage to the Americas. This was several hundred years after the end of the Viking Age, which is commonly considered to have concluded in 1066 with the Battle of Stamford Bridge.

So, what did Vikings eat instead of potatoes? Vikings relied heavily on a variety of vegetables that could grow in the harsh Scandinavian climate. Root vegetables such as turnips, carrots, and onions were common, as were cabbages and beans. These vegetables would have been used in stews, boiled as side dishes, or even eaten raw.

It’s also worth noting that even after the potato did make its way to Europe, it wasn’t immediately accepted. It took some time before potatoes became the staple food we consider today.

So, while a roasted potato might seem the perfect accompaniment to a Viking feast, the ancient Norse would have been more likely to dine on stewed turnips or roasted parsnips. Their cuisine was a testament to their resourcefulness and ability to adapt to their environment, even without the humble potato.

How Did Vikings Cook Their Food? 

The Vikings utilized various cooking methods, often determined by the resources they had on hand and the kind of food they were preparing.

One of the most common ways to prepare food was boiling. Vikings used large, iron cauldrons suspended over a fire for this purpose. Meat and fish were often boiled with vegetables, grains, or legumes to make hearty, nutritious stews. The cauldrons could also be used to make porridge or cook vegetables.

Another prevalent cooking method was roasting. Meat, particularly game or larger cuts, could be roasted on a spit over an open fire. This method was common during feasts and large gatherings, where a whole animal might be cooked.

Vikings also had a method of baking, particularly for bread. They would heat flat stones in a fire, then the dough would be placed on these hot stones to bake. This process was used to create a variety of bread, from thin, unleavened flatbreads to denser loaves made from rye or barley flour.

Smoking was another cooking method used, particularly for preserving food. Vikings would hang fish or meat over a smoky fire to cook and preserve it. This method allowed the food to last for a longer period, which was vital for surviving the harsh winters or long sea voyages.

Finally, fermentation was a method not just for preserving but also for enhancing flavors. Skyr, a type of yogurt still popular in Iceland, is one such example of a fermented Viking dish. Other fermented foods included various kinds of pickled vegetables and fish.

Despite the limited technology and harsh environmental conditions, the Vikings were resourceful and innovative in cooking their food, creating a cuisine that was both diverse and practical.

What Did Vikings Eat for Dessert? 

Dessert as we know it today, with sugary sweets and confections, was not a common part of the Viking diet. Sugar was unavailable in Scandinavia during the Viking Age; honey was the primary sweetener, but it was expensive and typically used sparingly.

Despite this, Vikings still had their form of treats and desserts, largely dependent on the seasonal availability of ingredients. Fresh fruits like apples, pears, and a variety of berries, such as bilberries, raspberries, and strawberries, were enjoyed in the summer months. These fruits could be eaten fresh or dried for consumption during the less abundant winter months. They might also be stewed into a sweet compote, served with a dollop of skyr or fresh cream.

Honey was also used to create sweet dishes. Honey cakes were a popular treat, made from a simple dough sweetened with honey and baked on a hot stone. These could be flavored with whatever spices or dried fruits were on hand.

Nuts and seeds, often sweetened with honey and roasted over the fire, were another simple dessert. This would not only have been a sweet treat but also a valuable source of protein and fats.

Even though the Vikings’ concept of dessert was quite different from ours today, they still knew how to enjoy a sweet treat after their meal or as a special indulgence. Their desserts were a reflection of their environment, resourcefulness, and the changing seasons.

Drinks: More than Mead

When we think of Norse food and drink, the first thing that comes to mind is often mead – a fermented drink made from honey. While mead was popular for festivities, daily Viking drinks were more likely to be beer, ale, and buttermilk for children and older people.

Water was also consumed but was not always safe to drink straight from the source. It was usually boiled with herbs or honey to improve its taste.

Feast and Famine: The Seasonality of Viking Eating

The Viking year was split into two distinct seasons: Summer, a time of abundance, and Winter, a time of scarcity. The summer was a time of plentiful food, with livestock being slaughtered, fruits and vegetables ripening, and long days for fishing and foraging.

Winter was tougher, and food needed to be preserved to last the long months of cold and darkness. Vikings made use of various preservation techniques, such as drying, smoking, pickling, and fermenting, to ensure they had enough to eat throughout the winter.

Social Aspects of Viking Eating

Eating in Viking society was not just about sustenance but also about social bonding. Mealtimes were communal, with families and communities gathering around a fire to share food and stories. Traditional Viking food, whether a simple stew or a grand feast, represented a coming together of people. It was a time of joy, camaraderie, and, of course, delicious food.

What Did Vikings Eat on Their Ships? 

Vikings had to be resourceful and practical about their food supplies on their long sea voyages. They had to rely on foods that could withstand the journey and provide enough sustenance to keep them going. This need led to an assortment of shipboard fare primarily dried, salted or smoked.

Salted or smoked meats, like beef or mutton, were commonly brought along for voyages, as the curing process ensured these foods remained edible for long periods. They also packed dried fish, such as cod or herring, which was lightweight, easily portable, and a valuable protein source. This preserved fish could be eaten, rehydrated with water, or stewed with other ingredients.

In terms of plant-based foods, hardy grains like oats, barley, or rye were turned into hard biscuits known as ‘hardbread’ or ‘ship’s biscuit.’ This stable food source could last for months, even years, without going bad, making it ideal for long voyages.

Fruits, vegetables, and nuts were harder to keep fresh during long journeys, but dried fruits or nuts could be carried as part of the provisions.

As for drink, beer was a staple, as water stored in casks for a long time could become unsafe. Sometimes, mead or wine would also be included, especially for longer voyages.

The food the Vikings ate on their ships was not varied or luxurious. Still, it was practical, and most importantly, it kept them alive and healthy during their extensive journeys. These preservation methods and dietary choices allowed the Vikings to undertake voyages of exploration, trade, and conquest that were unprecedented for their time.

Simple Viking Recipes

Are you interested in experiencing a taste of the Viking age? Here are three simple recipes inspired by traditional Viking food.

Viking Barley Porridge


  • 1 cup of barley
  • 4 cups of water
  • A pinch of salt
  • Honey to taste
  • Fresh or dried fruit (optional)
  • Nuts (optional)


  1. Rinse the barley under cold water.
  2. Put the barley, water, and salt in a pot.
  3. Bring to a boil, then reduce the heat to low, cover the pot, and let it simmer for about 45 minutes until the barley is soft and most water has been absorbed.
  4. Sweeten your porridge with a bit of honey, and top with fresh or dried fruits and nuts, if desired.

Smoked Fish with Root Vegetables


  • 2 whole smoked fish (like mackerel or herring)
  • 2 turnips
  • 2 carrots
  • 1 onion
  • Salt to taste
  • Fresh herbs for garnish (like dill or parsley)


  1. Preheat your oven to 375°F (190°C).
  2. Clean your fish if not already done, then place them on a baking tray lined with parchment paper.
  3. Peel and cut your root vegetables into chunks. Scatter them around the fish on the baking tray.
  4. Sprinkle a bit of salt over the fish and vegetables.
  5. Bake in the oven for 25-30 minutes or until the fish is cooked through and the vegetables are tender.
  6. Serve hot, garnished with fresh herbs.

Viking Flatbread


  • 2 cups of rye flour
  • 1 cup of water
  • A pinch of salt
  • Butter for cooking (optional)


  1. Mix the rye flour and salt in a large bowl.
  2. Gradually add water, mixing until you form a firm, not sticky, dough. You may need slightly less or more water, depending on your flour.
  3. Divide the dough into small balls about the size of a golf ball.
  4. On a well-floured surface, roll out each ball as thin as possible.
  5. Heat a dry skillet over medium-high heat. You can lightly butter the skillet, but traditionally, this bread was cooked without fat.
  6. Cook each flatbread for about 2-3 minutes on each side or until they are golden and have small charred spots. They should puff up a bit while cooking.
  7. Serve warm. They’re delicious on their own, or you can top them with whatever you’d like – cheese, cured meats, or even honey.

These recipes give you a glimpse into the Viking diet and their use of available resources. Remember, Viking food was not about complexity; it was about sustenance and utilizing the ingredients they had at hand. These recipes follow that principle and provide a hearty, nutritious meal reminiscent of the Viking age.

Conclusion: The Legacy of Viking Cuisine

Today, we can still see the legacy of Viking cuisine in the traditional foods of Scandinavia. From hearty stews and smoked fish to skyr and various breads, these dishes represent centuries of tradition and adaptation to a challenging environment.

While the Vikings might be best known for their seafaring adventures and warrior culture, it’s worth remembering that they were also farmers, fishermen, and foragers. Their diet was a reflection of their resourcefulness, their connection with the land and sea, and their cultural values.

This exploration of Viking food facts shines a light on the part of Viking life that is often overlooked. As we look back at these ancient Norse foods and their eating habits, we see a rich tradition that continues to influence modern Scandinavian cuisine.